What is Ecosystem

Ecosystem is a masculine noun, originating in the Greek language. In this language, its meaning is the system in which one lives .

An ecosystem is part of the study of Ecology, and the word designates a system where there is a set of biotic (living beings) and abiotic (physical, chemical and geological factors of the environment) components. These abiotic components influence the animal and plant life of the ecosystem.


Therefore, an ecosystem is a system where there is the existence of life and balance between living and non-living elements.

Ecosystem and biome are different. A biome is a set of similar ecosystems.

An ecosystem, therefore, is a system that remains stable, thanks to the balanced relationship between living beings, including plants, animals and microorganisms, with non-living components: water, sunlight and mineral salts, for example.

Ecosystems are divided into two types: terrestrial ecosystems and aquatic ecosystems . Their functions are similar, but the difference is in the difference in the amount of water.

Aquatic ecosystems are more productive in terms of energy, thanks to water, temperature and sunlight itself. As examples of these ecosystems, we can mention: lakes, seas and oceans.

Terrestrial ecosystems are forests, caatingas, savannahs and tundras, for example.

Brazilian ecosystems

Brazil is a country with an enormous diversity of ecosystems. The reason is the amount of heat appreciated by being a tropical country, and the main ecosystems in Brazil are: the Amazon Forest, caatinga, savannas, fields, swampland, Atlantic Forest and coastal vegetation (mangroves and restingas).

The Amazon Forest is the largest biodiversity ecosystem on the planet as well as the largest tropical forest in terms of extension, being part of the Brazilian territory.

The caatinga is an ecosystem located – for the most part – in the Northeast. The cerrado is an existing ecosystem, mainly in the Midwest region of the country. The fields (or also called pampas) are found in the southern region of the country.

The Pantanal is located in the Center-West region and there is a great animal biodiversity. It is considered the largest floodplain in the world. The Atlantic Forest is an ecosystem found from the southern region to the state of Rio Grande do Norte.

The coastal vegetation contains a great biodiversity in species of fish, birds and crustaceans, found in the restingas and mangroves.

Although they are the main Brazilian ecosystems, there are still other specific ecosystems in soil area in Brazil, such as Mata dos Cocais and Mata de Araucaria.

Types of Consumers in an Ecosystem

In an ecosystem, as previously explained, there are biotic and abiotic components. Living beings, from the biotic components, are divided into three types of consumers.

Consumers are living beings that feed on other living beings, and it is possible to determine that they do not produce their own food (as is the case with producers).

The first type is related to primary consumers : they are animals that feed on producing animals (plants, for example, that feed through photosynthesis). These, therefore, are the species of herbivorous animals.

Secondary consumers are animals that feed on consumers of the first type, that is, herbivorous animals. Of this type, we can mention the carnivorous animals.

Tertiary consumers, on the other hand, are animals considered to be large predators (that is, they capture prey). These animals are at the top of the food chain, for example sharks and lions.

As well as consumers, there are still decomposers , which are the organisms that feed on decaying organic matter. They are represented by bacteria and fungi, and this organic matter will return to the environment in the form of nutrients.

What is Ecosystem
What is Ecosystem 

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