What is Ethics
Ethics is a term that comes from the Greek “ethos”, a word whose meaning was “what concerns the customs and habits of men”. In Latin it ended up becoming “mores”, from which the word moral originated. Although the two known today, Ethics and Moral, have different meanings, they originate from the same idea and concept.what is Ethics care
Ethics, care as it is traditionally known, is a study, a scientific, philosophical, political and social reflection on human customs and actions. It is the part of philosophy that seeks to understand the notions and principles that support the moral foundations of a society and also the individual life of its members.
We can consider ethics as normative, when dealing with behavior, or descriptive, when dealing with customs, and even speculative, when it comes back to the yearnings and hopes of human beings.cs care
Since he is a political animal, it is inconceivable for man to live without ethics. Any act that relates to the human being is an object of study of ethics. It is precisely at this point that moral issues come in : ethics and morals, although they have different meanings, are mutually related, and one cannot exist without the other.what is Ethics care
Another important fact regarding ethics is that it is a science that changes over time, reflecting the political moment in a given period. Thus, in prehistory, there was an ethics that, even if not studied and evaluated, was present in the caveman. This ethic accompanies him through time and his evolution, changing as cultures change.what is Ethics care
The first known philosopher to study ethics was Socrates, who lived around 400 BC, and who was forced to drink heirloom, a powerful poison, because of his ideas. He sought to understand the laws and questioned them, as he questioned the behavior of the Greeks, who did not accept that their laws were discussed, they simply had to be obeyed.
After him, practically all philosophers focused on the study of ethics, seeking to understand and explain its meaning and its influence on men. But it was Kant, at the beginning of the 19th century, one of the most important. Kantian ethics sought a principle of universal validity, which was based only on equality between men.
Even in Ancient Greece, two other great philosophers also debated about ethics: Plato – who transcribed the ideas of Socrates, his master – and Aristotle. For Plato, the wise man should seek the contemplation of ideas and, above all, the contemplation of the good. Following the teachings of Socrates, the man arrived at the teachings of Jesus, who would be born 400 years later.
Aristotle, on the other hand, considered that human beings should seek concrete goods that would bring them tranquility and peace. He even left writings on the human behavior of his time, among them “Ethics to Eudemus” and “Ethics to Nichomaniac”, works where he shows that man needs, in order to be ethical, to live rationally, that is, according to reason. .
The arrival of Christianity changes the point of view of ancient philosophers. The new vision makes man seek his ethical and moral ideal in God, who is perfect and holy and, therefore, that is how men should be. The religious vision brought great moral progress to humanity, but in counterpoint it also brought religious fanaticism that, many times, caused the vision of the essence of ethics to be distorted. Thus, freedom, love and fraternity had their concepts transformed in each new line of thought that emerged.
Also within the religious foundations, in the 19th century, another philosopher, Feuerbach, sought to interpret ethics and morals. He wanted to translate the truth of religion into a philosophical anthropology that was within the reach of all men. Marx, another great student of philosophy, however, considered that Feuerbach’s vision was very contemplative and that the vision that man should have of the world was revolutionary, seeking redemption, sacrifice and martyrdom, waiting for the ideal to be built.
Many lines of thought were disseminated with the study of ethics: Breton utilitarianism, which considers the good that which brings advantages to many; the capitalism of many countries, which considers that the good is what helps progress and personal success in society; or logical positivism, which is dedicated to studying the forms of moral language, the varied types of ethical formulations, the syntax (the true meaning) of ethical imperatives and logic.
Kierkegaard, another philosopher, however, states that man cannot simply spend his whole life just studying the language of ethics without knowing how to live it, that is, without living according to ethics.
The branch of ethics that studies the foundations of duty and moral norms is called Deontology (a combination of the words from the Greek: “deon” (duty, obligation) and “logos” (science, knowledge). , within contemporary philosophy, introduced by Jeremy Bentham in 1834. According to Bentham, choices are morally necessary, prohibited or permitted.
Ethics in Public Service
Ethics in public service stems from some factors, as determined by Decree nº 1171/94, to be an ethics of social responsibility: Value of Legality (the civil servant must act in accordance with what is determined by law), Value of Impersonality (all deserve the same treatment); Value of Morality (the server cannot go against the ethical values of society); Publicity Value (accountability to taxpayers) and, finally, Efficiency Value (the public service must use resources efficiently).
real estate ethics
All regulated professions have a code of professional ethics. As an example, let’s take that of real estate brokers. According to article 723 of the Civil Code, the realtor must act with diligence and prudence, providing the client with all information about the real estate deal that is being carried out and also, under penalty of being sued for damages, inform about the security or business risk.