The Big Bang Theory
- The Big Bang theory was initially proposed by scientist Georges Lemaitre, in 1927, and is still a reason for great discussion in the scientific world. There are those who dispute the theory, but in general physicists show great confidence in this theory which suggests that the universe came into being from a big explosion. The confidence is so great that many physicists say it is as certain that the universe emerged from the Big Bang fifteen billion years ago as it is certain that the Earth orbits around the Sun.
- The Big Ban Theory
However, even though we use the expression “big explosion”, we shouldn’t imagine something extremely pyrotechnic, like a bomb exploding. We must keep in mind that, according to this theory, nothing existed before the Big Bang. We often imagine an explosion as if we were observers, watching this great event from the outside, but it must be clear that there was no way to be “outside”. The Big Bang is the beginning of space-time itself. It is also not possible to try to establish, through the view we have of the current universe, a place where the Big Bang would have happened, it happened in all of space. Since there is no time before the Big Bang, we can visualize what happened immediately after the event. Remembering that we can only imagine what happened, because the laws of physics still did not apply, because there was still no connection between space and time.The Big Ban Theory
Initially, the temperature was about 10 23K and the universe was expanding with great speed. Then the forces began to act as they do today and the universe was filled with quarks, leptons and photons, and still subjected to high temperature. From there the quarks begin to unite to form mesons and baryons. Matter and antimatter were annihilated, leaving a small amount of matter in excess for the formation of the universe as it is today. Soon after, between three minutes and a hundred thousand years, the protons and neutrons came together to form atoms such as helium, hydrogen and lithium. From that period onwards, electrons orbited protons, thus forming hydrogen atoms without being expelled from their orbits by photons. During this period, there was a large emission of radiation in the formation of these atoms, this radiation is the microwave background radiation.
In 1965, Penzias and Wilson detected this radiation, and it is through it that we can get an idea of what our universe was like when it was around 100,000 years old. From this, several measurements were made that suggested that the microwave background radiation was uniform, which means that matter was evenly distributed in the universe, which causes strangeness to scientists, as our current universe is not distributed. evenly. On the contrary, there is matter in large clusters of galaxies, while there are almost empty regions.
In some regions there is so much accumulated matter that astronomers call them “Wall”. In 1992, a NASA explorer satellite, through measurements, revealed that the microwave background radiation is not as uniform as it seemed. From these measurements, images were made that show the universe with only three hundred thousand years, and they show large concentrations of matter, which reinforces the Big Bang theory.